National Cotton Scenario

Growth of Indian Cotton

Area Production and Yield:

Over the years, country has achieved significant quantitative increase in cotton production. Till 1970s, country used to import massive quantities of cotton in the range of 8.00 to 9.00 lakh bales per annum. However, after Government launched special schemes like intensive cotton production programmes through successive five-year plans, that cotton production received the necessary impetus through increase in area and sowing of Hybrid varieties around mid 70s. Since then country has become self-sufficient in cotton production barring few years in the late 90s and early 20s when large quantities of cotton had to be imported due to lower crop production and increasing cotton requirements of the domestic textile industry.

Since launch of "Technology Mission on Cotton" by Government of India in February 2000 significant achievements have been made in increasing yield and production through development of high yielding varieties, appropriate transfer of technology, better farm management practices, increased area under cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids etc. All these developments have resulted into a turnaround in cotton production in the country since last 6/7 years. The yield per hectare which was stagnant at about 300 kg/ha for so many years, jumped to 472 kgs in the year 2005-06 and now it reached to the level of 504 kgs to 566 kgs per hectare. Though this per hectare yield is still lower against the world average of about 705 Kgs to 805 kgs per hectare, country is expected to make more strides in cotton production in the years to come. The fundamental changes that taking place in the realm of cotton cultivation in the country, are having the potential to take the current productivity level near to the world average in the near future.

Progress with regard to area, production and yield in the country from crop year 2000-01 onwards is enumerated as under:

Area, Production and Yield for last Fifteen years:

Year Area in
lakh hectares
Production in
lakh bales
Yield kgs
per hectare
2000-01 85.76 140.00 278
2001-02 87.30 158.00 308
2002-03 76.67 136.00 302
2003-04 76.30 179.00 399
2004-05 87.86 243.00 470
2005-06 86.77 241.00 472
2006-07 91.44 280.00 521
2007-08 94.14 307.00 554
2008-09 94.06 290.00 524
2009-10 103.10 305.00 503
2010-11 111.42 339.10 513
2011-12 121.78 367.00 512
2012-13* 119.78 370.00 525
2013-14 119.60 398.00 566
2014-15* 128.19 380.00 504
2015-16* 118.81 352.00 504
Source: Cotton Advisory Board *Projected

Cotton Balance Sheet:

Based on the cotton production in the country and its consumption by different segments of domestic textile industry, Cotton Balance Sheet for the current cotton season 2015-16 vis-à-vis 2014-15 as drawn by Cotton Advisory Board is given hereunder:

Quantity in lakh bales of 170 kgs
Item 2015-2016 2014-2015
Supply
Opening Stock 33.00 52.00
Crop Size 380.00 352.00
Imports 14.39 11.00
Total Availability 427.39 415.00
Demand
Mill Consumption 278.55 275.00
Small Mill Consumption 26.28 25.00
Non Textile consumption. 12.84 10.00
Total Consumption 317.67 310.00
Exports 57.72 70.00
Total Disappearance 375.39 380.00
Carry Forward 52.00 35.00
Source: Cotton Advisory Board meeting dated 2-2-16 (P)*Provisional

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