National Cotton Scenario

Growth of Indian Cotton

Area Production and Yield:

Over the years, country has achieved significant quantitative increase in cotton production. Till 1970s, country used to import massive quantities of cotton in the range of 8.00 to 9.00 lakh bales per annum. However, after Government launched special schemes like intensive cotton production programmes through successive five-year plans, that cotton production received the necessary impetus through increase in area and sowing of Hybrid varieties around mid 70s. Since then country has become self-sufficient in cotton production barring few years in the late 90s and early 20s when large quantities of cotton had to be imported due to lower crop production and increasing cotton requirements of the domestic textile industry.

Since launch of "Technology Mission on Cotton" by Government of India in February 2000 significant achievements have been made in increasing yield and production through development of high yielding varieties, appropriate transfer of technology, better farm management practices, increased area under cultivation of Bt cotton hybrids etc. All these developments have resulted into a turn around in cotton production in the country since last 6/7 years. The yield per hectare which was stagnant at about 300 kg/ha for more than 10 years, has increased substantially and reached a level of 554 kg/ha in cotton season 2007-08.

The fundamental changes that taking place in the realm of cotton cultivation in the country, are having the potential to take the current productivity level near to the world average cotton production per hectare in the near future. Apart from meeting the increased cotton consumption by domestic textile industry, country may have sufficient surplus cotton to meet the cotton requirements of importing countries.

Progress with regard to area, production and yield in the country over the last ten years is enumerated as under:

Area, Production and Yield for last Twelve years:

Area in lakh hectare/Production in lakh bales/Yield kgs per hectare
Year Area in
lakh hectares
Production in
lakh bales
Yield kgs
per hectare
2000-01 85.76 140.00 278
2001-02 87.30 158.00 308
2002-03 76.67 136.00 302
2003-04 76.30 179.00 399
2004-05 87.86 243.00 470
2005-06 86.77 241.00 472
2006-07 91.44 280.00 521
2007-08 94.14 307.00 554
2008-09 94.06 290.00 524
2009-10 103.10 305.00 503
2010-11 111.42 325.00 496
2011-12 121.78 353 493
2012-13* 116.14 334 489
Source: Cotton Advisory Board *Projected

State-wise Area, Production and Yield for last ten years:

Cotton Balance Sheet:

Based on the cotton production in the country and its consumption by different segments of domestic textile industry, Cotton Balance Sheet for the current cotton season 2012-13 vis-à-vis 2011-12 as drawn by Cotton Advisory Board, is given hereunder:

Quantity in lakh bales of 170 kgs
Item 2012-2013 2011-2012
Opening Stock 28.56 45.77
Crop Size 334.00 353.00
Imports 12.00 12.00
Total Availability 374.56 410.77
Mill Consumption 230.00 217.68
Small Mill Consumption 20.00 21.63
Non-Mill Consumption 20.00 14.09
Total Consumption 270.00 253.40
Exports 70.00 128.81
Total Disappearance 340.00 382.21
Carry Forward 34.56 28.56

For Cotton Balance Sheet for the last eleven years

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